Defining Humanities Essay Humanities is the study of language, philosophy, communication, environment, history, religion, sociology, arts, culture, education and ethics. The word humanities originally comes from the Latin word, â€œhumanus. â€ The word humanus means â€œhuman. â€ To be â€œhumanâ€ is to possess the qualities and attributes of man. Being human also has the feelings and dispositions proper to man. However, humanities as the study of the different cultural aspects analyzes manâ€™s weaknesses in life and how each can be improved. Culture includes speech, knowledge, beliefs, arts, technologies, ideals, and rules. To be cultured means to be refined and well versed in arts, philosophy, and the languages. It is also to be learned about great men and leaders in the past. Culture should regulate the type of behavior considered appropriate to an individual. Its teaching is essential for one to obtain the proper knowledge in his efforts to achieve the status of being a cultured man. On the other hand, understanding man and his affairs rather than just a body of accepted facts and theories is a purpose for humanities. It has various meanings in different historical periods, but it is only the same. This sums up to remind everyone about humanity. Humanities dealt with philosophy and theology in the 12th, 13th centuries and Renaissance period. This was the study of disciplines among languages, fine arts, music, and philosophy. Recognizing literature defined humanities in the past. There were different types of performing arts such as music, dance, theatre, philosophy, and religion. Humanities supported various categories of literature. Each and every one of these types were study academically. in the early centuries. Humanities is still an ongoing study of today and the future.
Post purchase Evaluation Process Carlie Higdon MAN105 March 9, 2013 Professor Dana Adams Consumer post purchase evaluation is generally affected by pre purchase expectations, The consumer usually does some sort of research to compare prices and such before making a big purchase, a house or a car for example. And the evaluation is whether they are happy or not with what they bought. What is cognitive dissonance (mental discord) you may ask?According to (businessdictionary. com) cognitive dissonance means State of psychological tension arising from incompatibility among a person's attitudes, behavior, beliefs, and/or knowledge, or when a choice has to be made between equally attractive or repulsive alternatives. It boils down to one of those â€œWhy did I buy that for? â€ moments. Commonly known as â€œBuyerâ€™s remorse. â€ Letâ€™s see as a personal experience of me having cognitive dissonance.I guess it would be the spear of the moment impulse buys. You know the stuff they put buy the cash registers in stores. I end up getting a lot of that â€œAs Seen On TVâ€ things at Walmart. Last thing would have to be the â€œBark Off. â€ Doesnâ€™t work, the dogs just barked at it. I threw it away. But, I was like I could have used that money for something better that I could have actually used. Two products that can cause cognitive dissonance would be a house or a vehicle.Because if your not happy with your purchase that is two things that are hard to take back and get your money back. Now how can marketers and consumers reduce cognitive dissonance? One word â€œCOMMUNICATION. â€ Just by the marketersâ€™ talking to the public they can get a better idea of what the consumer wants and needs. References http://www. businessdictionary. com/definition/cognitive-dissonance. html#ixzz2NCPjUHpu
How to Effectively Manage Leadership [H. D. Williams] [Touro University Worldwide] Executive Summary The paper identifies the key points that Peter Topping has discussed in his book â€œManagerial Leadershipâ€. This book is a guide for those who needs to build an effective leadership strategy. As Peter says that the management process involves the formulation of effective management systems right process for their application, have the right people with the right qualifications to manage and continuously improve systems to adapt to changing work environment.The major theme underlie in the book is that the managerial competence is necessary for laying the foundation for a very successful and flourishing career, however, it is a fact that demonstrated leadership skills are important to push the leader up to the organizational ladder and goals How to Effectively Manage Leadership Introduction The leadership is a feature of any organization, the axis motor of the same. It is therefore important that any person that performs in the business develop leadership skills.According to Allen, (2008) the leader is the people comprising the action, who converts followers into leaders and who can become agents of change. Leadership ability has been identified as one of the central features determinants of successful staff. In this sense, the modern world requires all those who fulfill tasks in the business sector, to be the leaders, because leadership is the key to successful and improving organizations (Allen, 2008). About The Book The book which needs to be analyzed in this project is â€œManagerial Leadershipâ€ written by Peter Topping.Thus, the book has identified a number of facts which can be helpful as guidance for effective leadership. It is a fact that effective management in the new millennium of competitive business environment needs a solid and efficient leadership skills for which the companies lacks to provide adequate training and development. There is a need for the Frameworks and top leadership tools for assessing leadership techniques, strengths for handling growth and change and thus, leads to make managerial leadership a veritable learning laboratory (Topping, 2001).Thesis statement The paper identifies how Peter has discussed The Role of effective management prevailing in competitive business environment in his book â€œManagerial Leadershipâ€. Discussion and Analysis The book identifies a number of elements which is necessary for manage an effective management strategy. Thus, Leadership can be broadly defined as the process of inspiring, coordinating, directing, mentoring and motivating, individuals, groups of individuals, organizations, societies, or nations toward achieving goals or results.Such a simple definition hides the reality that leadership as a concept is rife with complexity and debate (Allio, 2005). More important, leadership as a field of study is vast and can be a daunting domain of study for newcomers to the field. Part of the challenge for people studying and researching leadership is the high volume of leadership theories and perspectives available (Buus, 2005). Leadership in the new economy with its constant changes required to have an ability to adapt to new emerging business model, maintaining constancy of purpose and core values.This ability increases if the leaders make deliberate choices consistent with the values and beliefs of the company. Therefore, todayâ€™s struggling economy is in need of an effective leadership development strategy (Buus, 2005). A simple search of the word leadership will yield several thousand articles and publications on leadership written by academic scholars. As such, any attempt to define and summarize leadership will be a complex endeavor that will never fully capture and account for the concept of leadership.The aim of this encyclopedic entry, therefore, is to provide a general overview of leadership specific to organization studies for the novice reader. Major Theme The major theme underlie in the book is that the managerial competence is necessary for laying the foundation for a very successful and flourishing career, however, it is a fact that demonstrated leadership skills are important to push the leader up to the organizational ladder and goals (Topping, 2001). Based in part on Dr.Peter Topping's experience as managing director of the Goizueta Institute for Corporate Learning and Research, a cross-disciplinary think tank created to advance the cause of leaders and leadership, this challenging and illuminating book provides: â€¢ A proven, four-tiered approach to becoming a more effective leader â€¢ Tools for developing coaching, teaching, and mentoring skills â€¢ Methods to determine and strengthen effective leadership behaviors Management process is to take care of your business processes in the best possible way to improve performance.The management process involves the formulation of effective management systems right process for their application, have the right people with the right qualifications to manage and continuously improve systems to adapt to changing work environments (Topping, 2001). While it may be true that managers facilitate while leaders initiate, both skills remain valuable in today's workplace. Thus, from Managerial Leadership we find how to combine management and leadership into a dynamic approach for demonstrating effective leadership in any company or industry. Leadership DevelopmentNumerous studies have led to the same conclusion i. e. organizations that invest in leadership development are more effective than organizations that do not. Periods of economic instability only intensifies this effect. The latest study shows that all companies that have successfully gone through times of crisis have a clear strategy for leadership development. Investments, especially in a crisis, not only recovered but also brought profits. Research shows that the companies believe that it is more important to invest in the development of leadership in times of recession.Such companies not only survived but became stronger than their competitors. Studies show that investments in leadership development can: â€¢ Improve the financial performance of companies â€¢ Contribute to attracting and retaining talent â€¢ Stimulate the development and maintenance of culture results (performance culture) â€¢ Increase the agility of organizations (Topping, 2001). Effective Management Process management can effectively transform your business from failure to success in a short time.This means that you make good use of available resources in the organization such as money, personnel and facilities such as offices, equipment and tools and modern technology to achieve the objectives of the organization. Knowledge is also something very important for an organization and must be well managed through effective process management. Effective process management will manifest through a business has improved, increased profits, satisfied customers, motivated employees, willing to go extra miles and improve their skills and a new workplace business (Allio, 2005).Thus, important features to be identified are as under: Instruments to ensure effective management Protected areas are instruments to achieve the objectives of nature conservation. As such instruments require human, material and financial resources, and procedures to achieve their goals. To improve the means and processes to achieve effective management, will develop six lines of work. Adequacy of management structures Success in meeting the objectives for declaring protected areas depends on many factors, some internal systems themselves nature conservation and many other external.The adequacy of the management structures of the areas and systems of protected areas is the basis for effectively achieving its goals. Quality Management for Conservation The nature conservation is a priority of the protected natural areas. As the active management progresses, it becomes necessary to develop tools to improve information sharing, standardize procedures, and evaluate the effectiveness of actions. Quality management of public use and tourism Progress has been made n improving the quality of public use and tourism in protected areas (two good examples are the Q for quality of services offered to visitors, and the European Charter for Sustainable Tourism as a joint project between managers and tourism professionals). There are several manuals to guide and establish benchmarks for the management of public use. It is time to consolidate and improve where necessary, the quality of these services (Topping, 2001). Quality management for economic developmentThe integration of socio-economic development objectives of protected areas has progressed over the years through the implementation of development plans and implementation of initiatives with the business of the territory as marks of quality products and services associated to the parks. According to Peter, the laws of rural development and biodiversity provide a favorable scenario to promote good development practices in terms of sustainability. Evaluation of Management EffectivenessProtected areas are incorporating monitoring as an essential part of evaluating the effectiveness of management and the systematic collection of information and outreach through management reports. Leadership and Management Leadership as a concept in its broadest sense refers in essence to the one that brought forward the fundamental in the governance process and then, there is overlap between the concept of leadership and management. Thus, as the first is one of the components of the administrative process as several other elements of which (organization, planning, implementation and monitoring and follow-up).They also overlaps the other hand, comes in the context of the similarity in performance since both of them refers to the organization of group activity to achieve certain goals, as well as from that, the success of management is linked to a large extent the nature of leadership so the need for management capacity and presidents of qualified people with learning and creativity does not almost equivalent (Topping, 2001). The relationship management leadership management is not one year to the private, but it lies in the nature of each of the term management refers more to the policies, procedures and organizational tructure of any aspects of the technical and organizational while the driving means in particular profile of any humanitarian and short, that the administration is broader than leadership that is driving to one of the functions and tasks of management Developing Talent According to Peter, talent is now considered a competitive advantage: it is what differentiates successful companies from the rest. The task then is to identify: What is the talent of their workers? Talent is an asset to be managed effectively if you want to succeed in the market and also remain in the right place at the right time (Buus, 2005).While it is intangible, this is achieved by workers' performance and superior results that some of them, with great effort, manage to achieve. Talent is a strategic asset (scarce, valuable and unique) to be managed appropriately in the context of corporate strategy. Organizations can develop talent through: â€¢ Design jobs, positions and business roles from the competencies and skills that are required in order to get the most out of it. â€¢ Focus on developing leadership talent â€¢ Motivate employees constantly Train your employees on the latest techniques, technologies and working methods â€¢ Place employees in working jobs suited to their skills and competencies (Allio, pp: 1071-7). These practices are an outstanding for the leadership growth and can be used in leadership growth programs in various organizations. The ability of leaders is becoming scarce therefore; developing individuals internally is becoming more and more significant (Allio, 2005). According to Peter, there are many leadership practices that work as guidelines and can be incorporated in an organization to achieve success.Some of them include: Strong executive engagement, tailored leadership competencies, alignment with business strategy, target all levels of leadership, apply a comprehensive and ongoing approach and integrate with talent management (Topping, 2001). Other than these practices a leader may establish his own practices that may help him in achieving organizational goals. Conclusion Leadership growth is best planned and enforced when it takes place as a procedure implanted inside the organizational policy.This has significances for both the invention of â€œplansâ€ and â€œproceduresâ€ (i. e. , numerous stages, numerous learning skills, constantly retreating to the requirements of the business). A leader is not born overnight. Often it takes time for an individual to become a leader, and even after evolving a leader there is more to learn in alignment to become a productive leader. Leading by example is a mighty procedure. Leaders must possess the qualities they are seeking to incorporate into their team (Topping, 2001).Rather than understanding leadership as a position or an inherent trait, leadership is understood as an activity or process that involves the development of certain skills or capacities. While leadership differs in many ways from management, it is imperative that both functions exist and complement one another. Leadership is ultimately what will lead to innovation and positive change, and management assists in this process. To address the complex and adaptive challenges our society is facing today and will face in the future, we must find new ways to view leadership and engage in leadership in our organizations.Thus, through the book â€œManagerial Leadershipâ€, one can get the guide, strategies and tools that is required for implementing and cultivating a string and successful leadership organization and therefore, lead to develop oneâ€™s own valuable leadership efficiency and effectiveness (Topping, 2001). References Allen, S. , Hartman, N. (2008), â€œLeadership development: an exploration of sources of learningâ€, Advanced Management Journal, Vol. 73 No. 1, pp. 10-62. Allio, R. J. (2005), â€œLeadership development: teaching versus learningâ€, Management Decision, Vol. 3 No. 7/8, pp. 1071-7. Burke, V. , Collins, D. (2005), â€œOptimizing the effects of leadership development programmersâ€, Management Decision, Vol. 43 No. 7/8, pp. 975-87. Buus, I. (2005), â€œThe evolution of leadership development: challenges and best practiceâ€, Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol. 37 No. 4/5, pp. 185-8. Peter A. Topping, (2001), Managerial Leadership, Publisher: McGraw-Hill; 1 edition (December 26, 2001), ISBN-13: 978-0071375238 Yukl, G. A. (2006), Leadership in Organizations, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
This essay will aim to include my understanding and perception of the cultural industries, how it developed into the creative industries and how globalisation has impacted this sector through looking specifically at exampled from Sheffield. Originating from the 1940â€™s the Cultural Industries was known as â€˜The cultural Industryâ€™ taken from a book written by Adorno and Horkheimer called â€˜ Dialektik der Aufklarungâ€™ from the chapter â€˜Dialect of Enlightenmentâ€™. They thought of the Creative Industry as â€˜ art with special, exceptional forms of Human creativityâ€™ (Hesmondhalgh 2007).
By the late 1960â€™s the Cultural Industry became comodified and was intertwining with other industries such as film, television and music as these were socially popular, the cultural Industry was re-named â€˜The Cultural Industriesâ€™. Through new service industry growth and new labour, the Cultural Industries was turned into â€˜The Creative Industriesâ€™ in the 1990â€™s and is still known as this in current society. â€˜The creative Industries are those Industries that are based on individual creativity, skill and talentâ€™ (DCMS).
These creative industries include 13 categories: Advertising, architecture, arts and antiqueâ€™s, computer and video games, crafts, design, designer fashion, film, and video, music, performing arts, publishing, software, TV and Radio. From when the cultural/ creative industries were first produced they have achieved huge industry growth rates for example: between 1997 and 2001 the UKâ€™s creative industries grew by 8% per annum, with the most popular sector being TV and Radio and around about 122,000 organisations traded in the creative Industries since 1997( Montgomery, J 2007).
This service Industry growth is mainly down to Globalisation which is defined as â€˜ the world becoming more interdependent and integratedâ€™ (Moynagh and Worsely, 2008). Globalisation links with economic power and consumption for mass markets and making them become global. They do this by customizing products, making them innovative and unique, and by using sub-contractors hope to get the products known globally.
For example; in the fashion industry a designer will create a product that they want to produce globally to a specific target market, once they have created the product they will need to manufacture the product, ship the product and make it available for a global market to purchase. They will do this by having products made in countries such as Turkey or China as this method is cheaper and quicker, and have it shipped over to other companies to make it global.
Through the virtual innovations such as the internet, and communication systems, the product can be marketed globally. â€˜Globalisation also involves the global integration of production factors and services. â€˜Nationalâ€™ industries â€˜selling abroadâ€™ are increasingly giving way to the organisation of production and distribution on a global scale, sourcing materials, labour, services etc. across borders with little or no attachment to particular placesâ€™ (Brown et al 2000). There are many Proâ€™s and Conâ€™s regarding Globalisation, due to its features and tensions.
Globalisation features; to name a few include aspects such as transportation and distribution: getting the goods to the destination from the manufacturers as quick as possible, Growth of Cities: Many Cities are moving from rural areas to urban areas through the growth of industries and trade, Free trade: to allow companies to trade without government barriers or trade policy, Multi Nationals: Different nationality companies will be working along side one another in one country and Global Culture: the development of standardisation and the idea that everything will start to look ad feel the same.
Although this means that buying and selling overseas will become more integrated and connected through fast distribution and manufacturing, it also creates problems known as tensions of globalisation. A few of these tensions are; Poverty: Globalisation may mean that in poorer countries there are increases in â€˜sweat shopsâ€™ where poorer people are made to work long hours top help manufacture products to help the fast trade of Globalisation. In poor Asian economies, such as Bangladesh, Vietnam and Cambodia, large numbers of women now have work in garment export factories. Their wages are low by world standards but much higher than they would earn in alternative occupationsâ€™ (Bardhan, P 2006). Economic Growth: many traders have fled poorer countries in order to gain more trade in multi-national, urban areas. Oligopoly: There will no longer be one current market brand leader, as everything will be integrated and manufactured the same, causing competition in market brands.
Global vs. Local: The idea that local economies will be decreasing through products no longer being unique, through the speed of communication, how fast the brand becomes global. An article by Shah, A 2009 says: â€˜Following a period of economic boom, a financial bubbleâ€”global in scopeâ€”has now burst. The extent of this problem has been so severe that some of the worldâ€™s largest financial institutions have collapsed and local manufactures have been bought out by their competition at low pricesâ€™.
This demonstrates the impact that globalization has had on small businesses and how competition between organizations is becoming increasingly tougher. These features and tensions need to be considered in order to gain an understanding of the impacts of Globalisation and the positive and negative points that need to be considered in terms of the struggling economies and inequalities that may occur in parts of the world.
Globalisation also works off economic, political, social, cultural and environmental aspects and entails better communication; through social networking sites, developing relationships; through computer and internet innovations which link people together, and the decline in human contact; people are no longer conducting meetings as they can have video conferencing with people on the other side of the world.
One example of a globalised cultural Industry in the UK would be The Stonehenge, a World Heritage Site which is known as a place for worship and healing. This tourist attraction sees thousands of visitors pass it every year, visiting from all over the world. The world Heritage siteâ€™s include The great Barrier Reef, Great Wall of China, Galapagos Islands and many more, their missionâ€™s include is to promote public awareness of the sites and encourage international cooperation in the conservation of the World heritage sites (unesco. rg).
After looking into globalisation; itâ€™s positive and negative aspects in gaining a deeper understanding of the subject, I can now establish an understanding of how globalisation has impacted Sheffieldâ€™s Cultural Industries and weigh up affects it may have had on this industry. The growth of the Cultural Industries meant that in the UK a huge amount of employment was generated, which was extremely beneficial to Sheffield as it meant that 7. 2% of people were working for the creative Industries, this ame at a good time following the collapse of the steel industry after Britain let a failed trip to Japan to buy machinery to cater for the Steel industry needs. After a strike from the workers the Steel Industry closed in Sheffield and meant a loss of 50,000 jobs were incurred. Today in the Sheffield region of South Yorkshire, the Cultural Industries employment rates are above 20% of the average employment, rating above hotels and catering, and below the retail and education industries.
It is continuing to expand through the Cultural Industries Quarter located in the city centre which contains BBC Radio Sheffield, Sheffield Hallam University, Perishable Works, and Exchange works. A quote from a BBC News report 2006 shows: â€˜All very much in keeping with the new Sheffield. The area near the train station has been re-dubbed the cultural quarter, a loose collection of creative and multi-media firms with the Showroom Cinema and Workstation Cultural Industries Business Centre at its heartâ€™.
The CIQ is a non-profit organisation with a â€˜ wide ranging powers to support and promote the growth of the cultural industries in Sheffieldâ€™ (CIQ Agency 2006). These establishments are all in short distance from each other creating a business community, a range of building sizes, university connectivity and transport links (CIQ Online 2006). Other creative industries around the city include; Botanical Gardens, Peace Gardens, Sheffield Museum and art Gallery and the Crucible.
One organization that was established though the cultural Industries Quarter is the Workstation, a creative Business Centre combined with the Showroom Cinema, an independent picture house showing contemporary, classic film, and film from different cultures. It is now an internationally significant cultural centre which hosts annual events and festivals such as The Childrenâ€™s Film Festival, Sheffield Adventure Film Festival, Sensoria Festival of Music & Film and Celluloid Screams. The Showroom regularly hosts festivals and creative events which give a chance to meet experts from different media, learn new skills and cultivate new ideas.
Globalisation has had huge affects from the Cultural Industries being successful through the determination of the company becoming globally recognised. According to a journal article written by Brown et al 2000, it states that there was a four stage development plan to move the CIQ from being local, regional, national to internationally known by 1) Nurturing local music/ cultural businesses, 2) create a tourist attraction to bring people to Sheffield and 3) Using these points to create a better image of the city.
The creative director of the CIQ stresses that â€œWe donâ€™t want it to be seen as a Sheffield centre, but a national oneâ€. Through working on these plans Sheffieldâ€™s Cultural Industries Quarter have seen visitor numbers up to 500,000 per year which is proven to be a success. Through speaking to the manager of the Showroom in Sheffield, it is clear that through times of the recession and the â€˜credit crunchâ€™ the independent cinema has to market its events and showings carefully to ensure that the visitors are still attending.
As the venues most frequent visitors are older people who tend to have a lot of disposable income, they already have a captive audience. However, to gain awareness they have to capture various other market groups to expand itâ€™s global awareness for example; they can target different ethnic groups and communities through showing different nationality and religious films to attract the certain audience.
To conclude, through researching the Cultural Industries and how it has developed through time into the Creative Industries I now have a deeper insight into the background knowledge of the subject and can link it to globalisation and how they have positive and negative affects on one another. From researching Globalisation and the proâ€™s and conâ€™s it brings to the economy, I can now realise that Globalisation can create as much poverty as it can capital, and the affects it has on local businesses, trades, and workers.
The Cultural Industries Quarter in Sheffield has impacted from globalisation through the development and infrastructure of its diverse buildings and content. For example; the showroom has attracted audiences internationally as well as regionally through its specific showings at the cinema and it continues to grow by making Sheffield a â€˜Music Cityâ€™ by building more buildings to help expand the Cultural Industries Quarter. Finally, globalisation has shaped a mass market for the global economy as a whole and has profoundly meant that the cultural Industries are expanding and recognisable.
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.